UNIT 9: THE CHANGING FACE OF AMERICA STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 25: INDUSTRY COMES OF AGE
The Iron Colt Becomes an Iron Horse
Know: Land grants
1. What were the advantages and disadvantages of government subsidies for the railroads?
Spanning the Continent with Rails
Know: Union Pacific, Central Pacific, Paddies, Leland Stanford
2. Describe how the first transcontinental railroad was built.
Binding the Country with Railroad Ties
Know: The Great Northern, James J. Hill
3. Explain how the railroads could help or hurt Americans.
Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization
Know: Cornelius Vanderbilt, Pullman Cars
4. What technological improvements helped railroads?
Revolution by Railways
Know: Time Zones
5. What effects did the railroads have on America as a whole?
Wrongdoing in Railroading
Know: Jay Gould, Stock Watering, Pools
6. What wrongdoing were railroads guilty of?
Government Bridles the Iron Horse
Know: Wabash, Interstate Commerce Commission
7. Was the Interstate Commerce Act an important piece of legislation?
Miracles of Mechanization
Know: Mesabi Range, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison
8. What factors made industrial expansion possible?
The Trust Titan Emerges
Know: Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, Vertical Integration, Horizontal Integration, Trust, Interlocking Directorate
9. How did businesses organize to try to maximize profits?
The Supremacy of Steel
Know: Heavy Industry, Capital Goods, Consumer Goods, Bessemer Process
10. Why was steel so important for industrialization?
Carnegie and Other Sultans of Steel
Know: Andrew Carnegie, J.P. Morgan
11. Briefly describe the careers of Andrew Carnegie and J.P. Morgan.
Rockefeller Grows an American Beauty Rose
12. How was John D. Rockefeller able to become so wealthy?
The Gospel of Wealth
Know: Social Darwinism
13. How did the wealthy justify their wealth?
Government Tackles the Trust Evil
Know: Sherman Anti-Trust Act
14. What two methods were tried by those who opposed the trusts?
The South in the Age of Industry
15. How successful were Southerners at industrializing?
The Impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America
16. Describe the positive and negative effects of the industrial revolution on working Americans.
In Unions There is Strength
Know: Scabs, Lock-out, Yellow-dog Contract, Black List, Company Town
17. What conditions existed in America that led Jay Gould to say, "I can hire one half of the working class to kill the other half"?
Labor Limps Along
Know: National Labor Union, Knights of Labor
18. Explain the similarities and differences between the National Labor Union and the Knights of Labor.
Unhorsing the Knights of Labor
Know: Haymarket Square
19. What factors led to the decline of the Knights of Labor?
The AF of L to the Fore
Know: American Federation of Labor, Samuel Gompers, Closed Shop
20. How was the AFL different from previous unions?
Makers of America: The Knights of Labor
Know: Mother Jones, Terence Powderly
21. Were the Knights conservative or revolutionary in their ideas?
Varying Viewpoints: Industrialization: Boon or Blight
22. To what degree is it possible for common people to improve their status in industrial America?
CHAPTER 26: AMERICA MOVES TO THE CITY
The Urban Frontier
Know: Louis Sullivan, Walking Cities, Department Stores, Tenements
23. What factors led to the growth of cities in the second half of the 1800's?
The New Immigration
24. How were the new immigrants different from the old immigrants?
Southern Europe Uprooted
25. Why did the new immigrants come to America in such large numbers?
Makers of America: The Italians
Know: Birds of Passage, padrone
26. How did Italian immigrants live their lives in America?
Reactions to the New Immigration
Know: Political Bosses, Social Gospel, Jane Addams, Hull House, Settlement houses, Lillian Wald, Florence Kelley
27. How did political bosses help immigrants?
Narrowing the Welcome Mat
Know: Nativists, Anglo-Saxon, American Protective Association, Statue of Liberty
28. In 1886, what was ironic about the words inscribed on the base of the Statue of Liberty?
Churches Confront the Urban Challenge
Know: Dwight Lyman Moody, Cardinal Gibbons, Salvation Army, Mary Baker Eddy, YMCA
29. What role did religion play in helping the urban poor?
Darwin Disrupts the Churches
Know: Charles Darwin, Origin of the Species, Fundamentalists, Modernists, Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll,
30. What effect did the theory of evolution have on Christian churches?
The Lust for Learning
Know: Normal Schools, Kindergarten, Chautauqua
31. What advances took place in education in the years following the Civil War?
Booker T. Washington and Education for Black People
Know: Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee Institute, Accomadationist, George Washington Carver, W.E.B. Du Bois, NAACP
32. Explain the differences in belief between Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois.
The Hallowed Halls of Ivy
Know: Vassar, Howard, Morrill Act, Land Grant Colleges, Hatch Act
33. What factors allowed the number of college students to dramatically increase?
The March of the Mind
Know: William James
34. Describe some of the intellectual achievements of the late 1800’s.
The Appeal of the Press
Know: Joseph Pulitzer, William Randolph Hearst, Yellow Journalism
35. How did the ability to produce newspapers inexpensively change their content?
Apostles of Reform
Know: Edwin L. Godkin, Henry George, Edward Bellamy
36. How did writers in the 1870's and 1880's try to address the problems of their time?
Know: Dime novels, Horatio Alger, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson
37. Did the trends in writing after the Civil War make it a good period for literature? Explain.
Know: Kate Chopin, Mark Twain, Bret Harte, William Dean Howells, Stephen Crane, Henry James, Jack London, Frank Norris, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chestnut, Theodore Dreiser.
38. What did many writers in the late 1800's have in common?
The New Morality
Know: Victoria Woodhull, Anthony Comstock
39. What evidence demonstrated a battle raging over sexual morality?
Families and Women in the City
Know: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, National Women Suffrage Association, Ida B. Wells
40. What changes were occurring in the women's rights movement?
Prohibitition of Alcohol and Social Progress
Know: Women's Christian Temperance Union, Carrie Nation, Anti- Saloon League, 18th Amendment, Clara Barton
41. What social causes were women (and many men) involved in in the late 1800's?
Know: James Whistler, John Singer Sargent, Mary Cassatt, George Inness, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, Augustus Saint- Gaudens, Metropolitan Opera House, Henry H. Richardson, Columbian Exposition
42. Why is this section titled "artistic triumphs"?
The Business of Amusement
Know: Vaudeville, P.T. Barnum, Buffalo Bill Cody, Annie Oakley, James Naismith
43. What forms of recreation became popular from 1870 to 1900?
CHAPTER 27: THE GREAT WEST AND THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
Indians Embattled in the West
Know: Indian Territory, Sioux, Great Sioux Reservation, Tenth Cavalry
44. Describe the effect of westward expansion on Native Americans.
Receding Native Americans
Know: George Armstrong Custer, Bozeman Trail, Sitting Bull, Battle of Little Big Horn, Chief Joseph, Geronimo
45. How was the West "won?"
Bellowing Herds of Bison
Know: Buffalo Bill Cody
46. How were the Buffalo reduced from 15 million to less than a thousand?
The End of the Trail
Know: Helen Hunt Jackson, Ghost Dance, Battle of Wounded Knee, Dawes Act, Carlisle Indian School, Indian Reorganization Act
47. What did the government do to try to assimilate Native Americans?
Mining: From Dishpan to Ore Breaker
Know: Pike's Peak, Comstock Lode, Silver Senators
48. How did the discovery of precious metals affect the American West?
Makers of America: The Plains Indians
49. How was the culture of the Plains Indians shaped by white people?
Beef Bonanzas and the Long Drive
Know: Long Drive, Wild Bill Hickok
50. Why was cattle ranching so profitable in the 1870's?
Free Land for Free Families
Know: Homestead Act
51. Did the Homestead Act live up to the its purpose of giving small farmers a descent life on the plains?
Taming Western Deserts
Know: The Great American Desert, John Wesley Powell, Joseph F. Glidden
52. How did farmers adapt to the "Great American Desert"?
The Far West Comes of Age
Know: Boomers, Sooners, 1890, Frederick Jackson Turner, Yellowstone
53. What were some milestones in the “closing” of the West?
The Folding Frontier
Know: Francis Parkman, George Catlin, Frederic Remington
54. What effects has the frontier had on the development of the United States?
The Farm Becomes a Factory
Know: Montgomery Ward, Combine
55. Explain the statement, "The amazing mechanization of agriculture in the postwar years was almost as striking as the mechanization of industry."
Deflation Dooms the Debtor
56. What problems faced farmers in the closing decades of the 19th century?
57. How did nature, government, and business all harm farmers?
The Farmers Take Their Stand
Know: The Grange, Cooperatives, Greenback-Labor Party, James B. Weaver
58. How did the Grange attempt to help farmers?
Prelude to Populism
Know: The Farmers’ Alliance, Mary Elizabeth Lease
59. What steps did the Farmers’ Alliance believe would help farmers?
Varying Viewpoints: Was the West Really “Won”?
Know: Frederick Jackson Turner
60. Which criticism of the Turner Thesis seems most valid? Explain.
CHAPTER 28: THE REVOLT OF THE DEBTOR
The Republicans Return Under Harrison
Know: Thomas B. Reed, Billion-Dollar Congress
61. How did a change in House procedures allow the Republicans to pass legislation?
Political Gravy for All
Know: McKinley Tariff Bill of 1890
62. What motivated Republicans to spend so much money? How did they spend it?
The Populist Challenge in 1892
Know: Populist Party, James B. Weaver, Homestead Strike, Tom Watson
63. What were the Populists’ beliefs?
"Old Grover" Cleveland Again
64. Why did President Cleveland believe that repealing the Sherman Silver Purchase Act was necessary?
Gold Shortages and Job Shortages
Know: J.P. Morgan, Jacob S. Coxey
65. What controversial method was used to end the currency crisis?
Cleveland Crushes the Pullman Strike
Know: Eugene V. Debs, Pullman Palace Car Company
66. Why did President Cleveland send in federal troops during the Pullman Strike?
Democratic Tariff Tinkering
Know: Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act, Income Tax, Coin’s Financial School
67. Was the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act successful at fixing the nation’s economic troubles?
McKinley: Hanna's Fair Haired Boy
Know: Mark Hannah, William McKinley
68. Was William McKinley a strong presidential candidate? Explain.
Bryan: Silverite Messiah
Know: William Jennings Bryan, Cross of Gold Speech, Gold Bugs
69. Why was the “Cross of Gold” speech important?
Hanna Leads the "Gold Bugs"
Know: Free Silver
70. Why were “gold bugs” so opposed to Bryan?
Appealing to the Pocketbook Vote
71. Describe the methods used by the Republicans to elect McKinley.
Class Conflict: Plowholders versus Bondholders
Know: Fourth Party System
72. “The free-silver election of 1896 was probably the most significant since Lincoln’s victories in 1860 and 1864.” Explain.
Republican Standpattism Enthroned
Know: Dingley Tariff Bill
73. Did McKinley possess the characteristics necessary to be an effective president?
Inflation Without Silver
Know: The Gold Standard Act
74. In what way can it be said that the currency problem worked itself out?
Varying Viewpoints: The Populists: Radicals or Reactionaries?
Know: Charles and Mary Beard, Richard Hofstaedter
75. “What a historian writes tells the reader as much about the historian as it does about the subject matter.” Explain with reference to the Populist historians.