UNIT 12: WORLD WAR TO COLD WAR STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 37: FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND THE SHADOW OF WAR
The London Conference
Know: London Economic Conference
1. What were the results of Roosevelt's decision not to help stabilize currencies?
Freedom for (from?) the Filipinos and Recognition for the Russians
Know: Tydings-McDuffie Act
2. What was the reason for America's decision to free the Philippines?
Becoming a Good Neighbor
Know: Good Neighbor Policy
3. Was the United States serious about the Good Neighbor policy? Explain.
Secretary Hull's Reciprocal Trade Agreements
Know: Cordell Hull, Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
4. Were reciprocal trade agreements a good idea? Explain.
Impulses Toward Storm-Cellar Isolationism
Know: Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Fascism
5. What were the reasons for American isolationism?
Congress Legislates Neutrality
Know: Gerald Nye, Neutrality Acts
6. How did the Neutrality Acts attempt to keep the U.S. out of war?
America Dooms Loyalist Spain
Know: Francisco Franco, Spanish Civil War
7. How did the Spanish Civil War contribute to WWII?
Appeasing Japan and Germany
Know: Quarantine Speech, Panay, Rhineland, Sudentenland, Munich Conference, Appeasement
8. What actions were taken by fascist governments that showed that they were a threat?
Hitler's Belligerency and U.S. Neutrality
Know: Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, Cash and Carry
9. How did the United States respond to the start of WWII in Europe?
Aftermath of the Fall of France
Know: Phony War, Blitzkrieg, Winston Churchill
10. What further steps did the United States take after the fall of France?
Makers of America: Refugees from the Holocaust
Know: Anti-Semitism, Albert Einstein, American Jewish Committee, Father Coughlin, American Jewish Congress
11. Why did America not make more room for European Jews in the 1930's?
Bolstering Britain with the Destroyer Deal (1940)
Know: Battle of Britain, Royal Air Force, Fortress America, America First, Charles Lindbergh, Destroyer Deal
12. Describe the conflict between interventionists and isolationists in America in 1940.
FDR Shatters the Two-Term Tradition (1940)
Know: Wendell Wilke
13. Interpret the results of the 1940 election.
Congress Passes the Landmark Lend-Lease Law
14. What was so controversial about Lend-Lease?
Hitler's Assault on the Soviet Union Spawns the Atlantic Charter
Know: Atlantic Charter
15. What was the reaction in America to the Nazi attack on the Soviet Union?
U.S. Destroyers and Hitler's U-Boats Clash
16. How did America's implementation of the Lend-Lease policy bring us closer to war?
Heading for the Surprise Assault at Pearl Harbor
Know: Dutch East Indies, Pearl Harbor, December 7 1941
17. How did American actions contribute to Japan's decision to attack Pearl Harbor?
America's Transformation from Bystander to Belligerent
18. Was United States entry into WWII sudden or gradual? Explain.
CHAPTER 38: AMERICA IN WORLD WAR II
The Allies Trade Space for Time
Know: Germany First
19. "America's task was far more complex and back-breaking [in World War II] than in World War I." Explain.
The Shock of War
Know: Axis Powers, Internment Camps, Korematsu v. U.S.
20. How did the war effect liberal ideals and goals at home?
Building the War Machine
Know: War Production Board, War Labor Board
21. What effects did the war have on manufacturing, agriculture and labor?
Makers of America: The Japanese
Know: Matthew Perry, Meiji Government, Picture Brides, Gentleman's Agreement, Issei, Nissei
22. In what way can it be said that the reason's for Japanese immigrants' success also caused them trouble?
Manpower and Womanpower
Know: WAACS, WAVES, SPARS, GI, Braceros, Rosie the Riveter
23. What opportunities were opened to women as a result of the war?
Know: A. Philip Randolph, Fair Employment Practices Commission, Double V, CORE, Code Talkers, Zoot Suit Riots
24. What effect did the war have on the nation's minorities?
Makers of America: The Great African-American Migration
25. Why did African Americans move north and west in the 1930's and 40's?
Holding the Homefront
26. What economic effects resulted from American participation in the war?
The Rising Sun in the Pacific
Know: Douglas MacArthur, Bataan Death March
27. Describe Japanese victories in the Pacific in the months following Pearl Harbor.
Japan's High Tide at Midway
Know: Battle of the Coral Sea, Midway, Chester Nimitz
28. Why was Midway an important battle?
American Leapfrogging Toward Tokyo
Know: Guadalcanal, Island Hopping, Guam
29. What strategy did the United States use to defeat the Japanese?
The Allied Halting of Hitler
Know: Wolf Packs, Enigma, Erwin Rommel, Bernard Montgomery,
El Alamein, Battle of Stalingrad
30. "The war against Hitler looked much better at the end of 1942 than it had in the beginning." Explain.
The North African Second Front
Know: Soft Underbelly of Europe, Dwight D. Eisenhower
31. Describe the purpose and outcome of the Invasion of North Africa.
The Rough Road to Rome
Know: Casablanca, Sicily
32. Evaluate the success of the Italian campaign in accomplishing the objectives set for it.
Eisenhower's D-Day Invasion of France
Know: Teheran, D-Day, Normandy, George Patton
33. Why could June 6, 1944 be considered THE turning point of the war?
FDR: The Fourth-Termite of 1944
Know: Thomas Dewey, Henry Wallace, Harry S Truman
34. Why was the choice of a vice-presidential candidate important and difficult for the democrats in 1944?
Roosevelt Defeats Dewey
35. What factors led to Roosevelt's victory over Dewey?
The Last Days of Hitler
Know: Battle of the Bulge, "Nuts," Elbe River, Holocaust, V-E Day
36. Describe the last six months of war in Europe.
Japan Dies Hard
Know: Iwo Jima, Okinawa, Kamikazes
37. Explain the meaning of the title of this section.
Know: Potsdam, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Hirohito
38. What was the military impact of the atomic bomb?
The Allies Triumphant
Know: George Marshall
39. "This complex conflict was the best fought war in America's history." Explain
Varying Viewpoints: World War II: Triumph or Tragedy
Know: Appeasement, Gar Alperovitz
40. What questions concerning WWII have historians attempted to answer?
CHAPTER 39: THE COLD WAR BEGINS
Postwar Economic Anxieties
Know: Gross National Product, Taft-Hartley Act, Closed Shop, Council of Economic Advisors, GI Bill
41. Describe the downs and ups of the economy in the years following WWII.
The Long Economic Boom, 1950-1970
Know: R and D, Productivity
42. What evidence can you cite that shows the years 1950-1970 were good years economically?
The Smiling Sunbelt
Know: Benjamin Spock, Sunbelt, Frostbelt, Rustbelt
43. How did the population shift in the years after the war?
The Rush to the Suburbs
Know: Federal Housing Authority, Veterans Administration, Levittown, White Flight
44. Was the shift to the suburbs good for America? Explain.
The Postwar Baby Boom
Know: Baby Boom
45. How did the bulge in population caused by the Baby Boom change American life over the decades?
Truman: the "Gutty" Man from Missouri
Know: "The buck stops here."
46. What kind of a man was Harry S Truman?
Yalta: Bargain or Betrayal?
Know: Yalta, United Nations
47. Why was the Yalta conference controversial in the decade following it?
Makers of America: The Suburbanites
Know: Federal Housing Administration, Levittowns, White Flight
48. How did suburbs revolutionize life in America?
The United States and the Soviet Union
Know: Communism, Capitalism, Sphere of Influence
49. How did similarities and differences both cause the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. to have difficulties dealing with each other?
Shaping the Postwar World
Know: International Monetary Fund; World Bank; Security Council; General Assembly; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; Food and Agricultural Organization; World Health Organization
50. For what problems were international organizations established after WWII?
The Problem of Germany
Know: Nuremberg, Hermann Goering, Big Four, Iron Curtain, Berlin Airlift
51. What problems did Germany cause between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.?
Crystallizing the Cold War
Know: George Kennan, Containment, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan
52. Describe the policies followed by Truman in relation to the Soviets.
America Begins to Rearm
Know: National Security Act, Defense Department, Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Security Council, Central Intelligence Agency, Voice of America, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
53. List and define the organizations set up to deal with the Soviet Union.
Reconstruction and Revolution in Asia
Know: Douglas MacArthur, Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Zedong, H-bomb
54. Our WWII ally China gave us more trouble in the post war years than our enemy Japan. Explain.
Ferreting Out Alleged Communists
Know: Smith Act, Committee on Un-American Activities, Richard M. Nixon, Alger Hiss, Joseph R. McCarthy, McCarran Internal Security Bill, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
55. Did the U.S. government go too far trying to prevent communist infiltration?
Democratic Divisions in 1948
Know: Dixiecrats, Strom Thurmond, Henry Wallace, Do-nothing Congress, "Dewey Defeats Truman," Point Four, Fair Deal
56. How successful was Truman in passing his domestic program?
The Korean Volcano Erupts (1950)
Know: 38th Parallel, Dean Acheson, NSC-68, Police Action
57. What was the impact of the Korean War on the Cold War?
The Military Seesaw in Korea
Know: Pusan Perimeter, Inchon, Chinese Volunteers, Douglas MacArthur
58. Why did Truman fire MacArthur?
Varying Viewpoints: Who Was to Blame for the Cold War?
59. What is the current opinion of most historians on the above question?
CHAPTER 40: THE EISENHOWER ERA
The Advent of Eisenhower
Know: Adlai E. Stevenson, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Checkers Speech
60. Describe the 1952 presidential election.
"Ike" Takes Command
Know: Ike, Joe McCarthy
61. Joe McCarthy may have been more dangerous to our form of government than any communists who might have been in the country. Explain.
Desegregating the South
Know: Jim Crow Laws, Emmett Till, Jackie Robinson, NAACP, Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus Boycott, Martin Luther King Jr.
62. What conditions in the South brought about the beginnings of the Civil Rights movement?
Seeds of the Civil Rights Revolution
Know: Earl Warren, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, All Deliberate Speed
63. Why was Brown v. Board of Education a landmark case?
Crisis at Little Rock
Know: Little Rock Central High School, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Sit-ins, Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
64. How did events in Little Rock and Greensboro provide momentum for the Civil Rights movement?
Eisenhower Republicanism at Home
Know: Dynamic Conservatism, Creeping Socialism, Interstate Highway Act, AFL-CIO
65. Did Eisenhower live up to his philosophy of dynamic conservatism?
A New Look in Foreign Policy
Know: John Foster Dulles, Strategic Air Command, Massive Retaliation, Military-industrial Complex
66. Was Eisenhower's policy of massive retaliation effective? Explain.
The Vietnam Nightmare
Know: Ho Chi Minh, Dienbienphu, Ngo Dinh Diem, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
67. How did the United States get involved in Vietnam?
A False Lull in Europe
Know: Warsaw Pact, Nikita Khrushchev, Hungary
68. Was the U.S.S.R. easier to deal with under Khrushchev? Explain.
Menaces in the Middle East
Know: Shah of Iran, Gamal Abdel Nasser, The Suez Crisis, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Country
69. Why was the U.S. concerned about problems in the Middle East?
The Voters Still Like "Ike" in 1956
70. Interpret Eisenhower's victory in 1956.
Round Two for "Ike"
Know: Teamsters, Jimmy Hoffa, Landrum-Griffin Act
71. What labor problems became evident during Eisenhower's second term?
The Race with the Soviets into Space
Know: Sputnik, Missile Gap, National Defense and Education Act
72. What was the American reaction to the Sputnik satellite?
The Continuing Cold War
Know: U-2 Spy Plane
73. Describe efforts at disarmament during the Eisenhower administration.
Cuba's Castroism Spells Communism
Know: Fulgencio Batista, Fidel Castro
74. Why was revolution in Cuba such a concern to America?
Kennedy Challenges Nixon for the Presidency
Know: Richard Nixon, Kitchen Debate, John Kennedy
75. Was Nixon a good presidential candidate in 1960?
The Presidential Issues of 1960
Know: New Frontier
76. What were Kennedy's strengths and weaknesses as a presidential candidate?
The Old General Fades Away
Know: Alaska, Hawaii
77. Evaluate Eisenhower's presidency?
Changing Economic Patterns
Know: IBM, Information Age, Ozzie and Harriet, The Feminine Mystique
78. What was life like for women in the 1950's?
Consumer Culture in the Fifties
Know: Diner's Club, McDonald's, Disneyland, Television, Elvis Presley, Marilyn Monroe, Playboy, The Affluent Society
79. How was popular culture changing and reflecting America?
The Life of the Mind in Postwar America
Know: Catch-22, Arthur Miller, Catcher in the Rye, George Orwell
80. What do the books and plays of the post-war period say about the times in which they were produced?