UNIT 11: TWENTIES AND THIRTIES STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 34: AMERICAN LIFE IN THE "ROARING TWENTIES"
Insulating America from the Radical Virus
Know: Billy Sunday, Red Scare, A. Mitchell Palmer, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
1. Cite examples of actions taken in reaction to the perceived threat of radicals and communists during the red scare.
Hooded Hoodlums of the KKK
2. Compare and contrast the new and old Ku Klux Klans.
Stemming the Foreign Flood
Know: Emergency Quota Act, Immigration Act
3. Describe the immigration laws passed in the 1920's.
Makers of America: The Poles
Know: Prussian Poles, Russian Poles, Austrian Poles, American Warsaw
4. What factors led Poles to America?
The Prohibition "Experiment"
Know: Eighteenth Amendment, Volstead Act, Wet and Dry, Speakeasies, Home Brew, Bathtub Gin, Noble Experiment
5. How and why was the eighteenth amendment broken so frequently?
The Golden Age of Gangsterism
Know: Al Capone, St. Valentine's Day Massacre, Lindbergh Law
6. What was Gangsterism?
Monkey Business in Tennessee
Know: John Dewey, John T. Scopes, William Jennings Bryan, Clarence Darrow
7. Describe the clash of cultures that took place in schools in the 1920's.
The Mass-Consumption Economy
Know: Andrew Mellon, The Man Nobody Knows, Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey
8. Give evidence to prove that America became a mass-consumption economy in the 20's.
Putting America on Rubber Tires
Know: Henry Ford, Frederick W. Taylor, Model T
9. What methods made it possible to mass-produce automobiles?
The Advent of the Gasoline Age
10. What were the effects of the widespread adoption of the automobile?
Humans Develop Wings
Know: Orville and Wilbur Wright, Charles Lindbergh
11. What effects did the early airplane have on America?
The Radio Revolution
12. How did America change as the result of the radio?
Hollywood's Filmland Fantasies
Know: The Great Train Robbery, The Birth of a Nation, The Jazz Singer
13. What were some milestones in the history of motion pictures?
The Dynamic Decade
Know: Margaret Sanger, Flappers, Sigmund Freud, Jelly Roll Morton, Langston Hughes, Marcus Garvey
14. "Far-reaching changes in lifestyles and values paralleled the dramatic upsurge in the economy." Explain.
Know: H. L. Mencken, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, William Faulkner, Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, e.e. cummings, Eugene O'Neill, Louis Armstrong, Frank Lloyd Wright
15. How did the arts of the 1920's reflect the times?
Wall Street's Big Bull Market
Know: Margin, Andrew Mellon
16. Was government economic policy successful in the 20's?
CHAPTER 35: THE POLITICS OF BOOM AND BUST
The Republican "Old Guard" Returns
Know: Warren Harding, Ohio Gang
17. What flaws did Warren Harding possess?
GOP Reaction at the Throttle
18. What pro-business policies were taken by the government during the Harding administration.
The Aftermath of War
Know: Railway Labor Board, American Legion, Adjusted Compensation Act
19. What effects did the war have on the post-war economy?
America Seeks Benefits Without Burdens
Know: Unofficial Observers
20. What is the meaning of this section's heading?
Ship-Scrapping at the Washington Conference
Know: Charles Evans Hughes, Five-Power Naval Treaty, Four-Power Treaty, Nine-Power Treaty, Kellogg-Briand Pact
21. How did the U.S. take the lead in disarmament in the 20's?
Hiking the Tariff Higher
Know: Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law
22. What effects were produced by high American tariffs?
The Stench of Scandal
Know: Charles R. Forbes, Albert B. Fall, Teapot Dome, Harry M. Daugherty
23. "Such was his [Harding's] weakness that he tolerated people and conditions that subjected the Republic to its worst disgrace since the days of President Grant." Explain
Calvin Coolidge: A Yankee in the White House
Know: Calvin Coolidge
24. Do the nicknames, "Silent Cal" and "Cautious Cal" accurately describe the Coolidge presidency?
Know: McNary-Haugen Bill
25. What had changed for the farmer since 1890? What had remained the same?
A Three-Way Race for the White House in 1924
Know: Robert La Follette
26. Why did Calvin Coolidge easily win the 1924 election?
27. What are the arguments for America canceling the WWI debt of European countries?
Unraveling the Debt Knot
Know: Dawes Plan
28. What were the world-wide repercussions of America’s insistence on debt repayment?
The Triumph of Herbert Hoover
Know: Al Smith, "Rum, Romanism, and Ruin"
29. Why was Herbert Hoover so much more popular with voters than Al Smith?
President Hoover's First Moves
Know: Farm Board, Hawley-Smoot Tariff
30. Did Hoover’s attempts to help farmers produce positive results? Explain.
The Great Crash Ends the Golden Twenties
Know: Black Tuesday, "Brother Can You Spare a Dime?"
31. What were the immediate effects of the stock market crash?
Hooked on the Horn of Plenty
Know: Hoover Blankets, Hoovervilles
32. What causes contributed to the Great Depression?
Rugged Times for Rugged Individualists
Know: Rugged Individualism, The Great Humanitarian
33. How did President Hoover’s beliefs affect the way he handled the Depression?
Herbert Hoover: Pioneer for the New Deal
Know: Muscle Shoals Bill, Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Pump-Priming, Yellow Dog Contracts
34. Is Hoover’s reputation as ultra-conservative well deserved? Explain.
Routing the Bonus Army in Washington
Know: Bonus Expeditionary Force, Douglas MacArthur
35. What happened to the Bonus Army? Why?
Japanese Militarists Attack China
Know: Manchuria, Stimson Doctrine
36. How did the Japanese attack on Manchuria demonstrate the weakness of the League of Nations?
Hoover Pioneers the Good Neighbor Policy
37. What was President Hoover’s policy toward Latin America?
CHAPTER 36: The Great Depression and the New Deal
FDR: A Politician in a Wheelchair
Know: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt
38. What kind of man was FDR?
Presidential Hopefuls of 1932
39. What was Roosevelt's campaign message in the 1932 election?
The Humiliation of Hoover in 1932
40. What were the immediate results of Roosevelt's victory?
FDR and the Three R's: Relief, Recovery, Reform
Know: New Deal, Banking Holiday, Hundred Days, Three R's,
41. Describe the New Deal.
Roosevelt Tackles Money and Banking
Know: Fireside Chats, Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Managed Currency
42. What were the key aspects of FDR's monetary policy?
Creating Jobs for the Jobless
Know: Pump Priming, CCC, FERA, Harry Hopkins, AAA, HOLC, CWA, Father Charles Coughlin, Huey Long, Dr. Francis E. Townsend, WPA
43. Explain the difference between New Deal agencies and what radical critics wanted the government to do.
A Helping Hand for Industry and Labor
Know: NRA, Sick Chicken Decision, PWA, Harold Ickes
44. How did the NRA attempt to restore industry?
Paying Farmers Not to Farm
45. How did the federal government attempt to help farmers?
Dust Bowls and Black Blizzards
Know: Dust Bowl, Okies and Arkies, The Grapes of Wrath, Indian Reorganization Act
46. How did nature cause problems for some farmers on the plains?
Makers of America: The Dust Bowl Migrants
Know: San Joaquin Valley, Farm Security Administration, Okievilles
47. In what ways were things better in California? In what ways the same?
Battling Bankers and Big Business
Know: Federal Securities Act, SEC
48. "Reformist New Dealers were determined from the outset to curb the `money changers....'" Explain.
The TVA Harnesses the Tennessee River
Know: TVA, Creeping Socialism
49. What arguments were used for and against the TVA project?
Housing Reform and Social Security
Know: FHA, Social Security
50. How did the FHA and Social Security attempt to help some of society's least fortunate?
A New Deal for Unskilled Labor
Know: Wagner Act, National Labor Relations Board, CIO, John L. Lewis, Sit-down Strike
51. How did labor respond to the improvement of conditions brought about by the New Deal?
Roosevelt's "Coddling" of Labor
Know: Fair Labor Standards Act
52. What other gains were made by labor?
Landon Challenges "the Champ" in 1936
Know: Alfred Landon, American Liberty League
53. What was the significance of the 1936 election?
Nine Old Men on the Supreme Bench
54. Why did Roosevelt ask Congress for a bill that would allow him to add justices to the Supreme Court?
The Court Changes Course
Know: Court Packing, Hugo Black
55. What were the consequences of FDR's attempt to pack the Court?
The Twilight of the New Deal
Know: Roosevelt Recession, John Maynard Keynes, Hatch Act
56. Assess the successfulness of FDR in his second term.
New Deal or Raw Deal?
57. What criticism of the New Deal seems most fair to you? Least fair?
FDR's Balance Sheet
58. What is the textbook author's opinion of Roosevelt? Do you agree?
Varying Viewpoints: How Radical Was the New Deal
Know: Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Carl Degler, Constraints School of Historians, New Deal Coalition
59. What did William Leuechtenburg mean when he called the New Deal a "half-way revolution?" (Your answer should focus more on the information before this term than on the information after it.)